Inductive Teaching & Learning
Topics are introduced by presenting specific observations, case studies or problems, and theories are taught or students are helped to discover them only after the need to know them has been established.
The following are examples of Inductive Teaching & Learning :
Inquiry-based instruction is a student-centered pedagogy. Instead of the teachers giving instructions and answers to the students directly, students have to be actively involved in their own learning by exploring, acquiring, and analyzing information to develop solutions to the questions posed.
Inquiry learning begins when students are presented with questions to be answered, problems to be solved, or a set of observations to be explained. This is an umbrella category that encompasses other inductive teaching methods such as problem-based and case-based learning.
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy that stimulates students’ learning by challenging them with open-ended, ill-defined and ill-structured, real-world problems. Students usually work in collaborative groups to solve the problems and reflect on their experiences. Traditional teaching is replaced by facilitation of learning. PBL has been widely adopted by medical schools around the world.
Project-based learning is a student-centered teaching technique. Itallows students to construct their own knowledge and skills by working cooperatively on complex and challenging real-life projects.
Case-based learning is a variant of project-based learning, more popular in business and law schools. Students construct their knowledge by working on complex and real-life cases.
For Discovery learning, students acquire the knowledge that they discover on their own. Discovery learning is “an approach to instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments” (Ormrod, 1995, p. 442).
Just-in-time teaching (JiTT) is a teaching and learning strategy that utilizes carefully constructed web-based assignments to promote interactions between students and instructor and create a student-centered classroom environment. In JiTT, students respond electronically to the web-based assignments that are due shortly before the class section and the instructor reads the student submissions “just-in-time” to adjust the classroom lesson to suit the students’ needs.