The section contains an overview and general information on assessment – philosophical foundations, generic purposes, and overview of the assessment methods. 

For sample rubrics of some common assessment, please click here.

The student-centered, assessment as learning/assessment for learning paradigm – employing a variety of techniques to collect evidence of learning.

Summative assessment focuses on measuring what students know and don’t know. The main purposes of summative assessment are for grading and to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum, programme, and school as an accountability measure. Standardized tests are one of the most popular summative assessment methods.

Formative assessment, on the other hand, is a part of the instructional process. Its main focus is to provide feedback to students to enhance their learning. Formative assessment provides information and evidences about learning and teaching that intrigues reflection on, adjustments and improvements of the instruction. Students’ active engagement in the assessment is one of the distinguished features of the formative assessment. There are a variety of effective formative assessment techniques.

Norm-referenced assessments measure students’ performance by comparing them using the normal grade distribution (i.e., disperse average student scores along a bell curve, with some students performing very well, most performing average, and a few performing poorly). Examples of norm-reference assessments are GRE, ACT, SAT, etc.

Criterion-referenced assessments measure students’ performance against learning outcomes or performance criteria rather than another student.

The assessment rubric is an authentic assessment tool that evaluates students’ performance against a full range of criteria rather than a single score.

Rubrics for multi-disciplines –


Example rubrics (Charles Sturt University)


Assessment Guides, Templates, and Rubrics (University of Louisville)


Rubric Gallery - public rubrics

Rubrics for Essay Questions and Journal Writing –

Multi-discipline rubric bank and rubric templates –


Grading Rubrics: Examples of Rubric Creation (Berkeley Graduate Division)


Physics 310 – Essay Scoring Rubric (Illinois State University)